Which boy had the best performance of the week? You decide.
Articles with Estero HS
Ray Romero remembers former Estero state champion Jeremy Savinsky who recently passed away at the age of 42.
This past weekend the Jeff Sommer Memorial High was named in honor of the late Estero coach.
Coach Ben Pignatone gives us the Scouting Report on this year's team.
Ray Romero recaps all the action from a muddy and competitive DDD Sommer Invitational.
Lisa Ringer was on-site at the 2017 DDD Sommer Invitational and snapped nearly 900 photos including this one of a member of the host Wildcats.
The Jim Ryun Invitational has been one of the standout meets of the cross country season and 2017 proves to be no different.
Estero junior Hugh Brittenham was second at the district championship and 4th at the 3A Region 3 Championship. Learn more about Brittenham in this Spotlight Athlete feature.
Five team's from last year's Race of Champions field return to the 2017 FLRunners.com Invitational. We break down each squad and see who has the best chance to take home the hardware at Holloway Park.
The 2017 FLRunners.com Invitational is less than two months away, but it's never too late to check out our virtual meet feature and see which athletes and teams entered have the best shot at winning.
Estero coach Ben Pignatone was so impressed with his kids work ethic during winter break he wanted to share this video with us. On Christmas Eve the group crushed this 3x4-400's workout. Special thanks to Adam Sommer for putting this together.
We continue our course rankings series with Estero Community Park in Estero. The course is home to numerous meets including the DDD Invitational, districts, and regionals. Take a look at the top girls times this year and how they stack up to the 500 best of All-Time.
We continue our course rankings series with Estero Community Park in Estero.. The course is home to numerous meets including the DDD Invitational, districts, and regionals. Take a look at the top boys times this year and how they stack up to the 500 best of All-Time.
Only the Episcopal girls have advanced to Nike Cross Nationals, but that was before the days of the regional qualifiers. We went back and took the results dating back to 2007 to see who the top Florida programs at NXNSE were over that time. Our legacy scores form an "all star" team for each school and score each.
As part of our Saucony Flo 50 rankings series, we take a look at the top 25 boys and girls individuals as well as the top 25 boys and girls teams and rank them. Here are the top boys teams after the cross country state championship.
The Satellite Scorpions will try to sting the Trinity Prep Saints and end their state championship run in 2A. Don't get it twisted though a majority of Coach Butler's squad knows about the successes of the squad less than an hour to their east. The two programs are the best in the state regardless of class and the top spot on the podium could come down to their number five runners. We rank the top 25 teams according to our XC team score rankings.
Legacy team scores look at a team's best seven runners from the past ten years at a specific meet, in this case the flrunners.com Invitational. By compiling the fastest seven times run by any runner in that time period, we then score those athletes against each other. The Estero girls and Belen boys have won the most Race of Champions titles than any other team and that makes it no surprised they are number one in both rankings.
The Estero 3D Invitational was renamed the 3D Sommer Invitational in 2016 in honor of Coach Sommer who passed away last year. Sommer was never one to let his kids take the easy way out, pushing them to their limits. He was probably laughing from upstairs as the already challenging Estero Park Course was covered in mud and water, making it even more difficult. Bill Lenahan was one of two photographers on-site for flrunners.com and has 1,100+ photos of all the action!
Watch as the Wildcats prepare for Cross Country Finals by doing a 800, 400, 8x200 ladder workout. Thanks to Dillon McGee for filming and editing this Workout Wednesday.
Discipline. Desire. Dedication. Those are the 3 D's that all the Estero High runners live by, and senior Daley Cline is no exception. With two state cross country team titles and two 4x800 titles, Cline's dedication to the 3 D's paid off as she recently announced her verbal commitment to the University of Alabama.
Watch ALL the race videos & interviews from the 2015 Estero DDD Invitational and make sure to check out over 1,700 photos from Tom Connor!
Tom Connor was on-site at the Estero DDD Invitational and snapped over 1,700 photos including this one of girls varsity winner Lindsay Tomaini from the Community School of Naples and runner-up Daley Cline of Estero.
The 2015 Estero DDD Invite will have a special meaning this year. Prior to the start of the meet the Village of Estero will proclaim September 5th as Jeff Sommer Day. Coach Sommer who passed away at the state track meet in May was the patriarch of the Wildcat family. His 3D mantra of dedication, discipline, and desire will live on Saturday at Estero Community Park as over 45 teams make the trek to South Florida! Flrunners.com will be in full force for our meet of the week with photos, race videos, interviews, results, and a complete recap of the day!
The Estero Lady Wildcats (pictured alongside the boys team) won four cross country state championships in a row from 2010-2013. See how we think they'll fare in our our 2015 Scouting Report.
The Fort Myers Green Wave were 3A runner-up in 2014 and are hoping to finish one spot higher with a deep and talented roster. Coach Gowan's Chiles team will prove to be the biggest threat. Check out our complete 3A rankings.
With track season ending we bridge the gap to the start of cross country by using our extensive stats database. Take a look at the top girls cross country teams based on 1,600m track times.
Who ended the year in the top spot? Find out in our top 25 final rankings for girls relay events.
Some jobs are meant for certain people.The Estero boys' and girls' cross country position, held by the late Jeff Sommer, "was meant" for Ben Pignatone, who was hired last Friday by principal Clayton Simmons and athletic director David Burns.
The Estero HS Coach passed away after his girls 4x800-meter relay team won the Florida State Championships this weekend
The running community lost one of the great ones on Saturday. Longtime Estero coach Jeff Sommer passed away after suffering a heart attack at the 3A State Finals.
The ladies of Miami Northwestern flat out destroyed the competition tallying 155 points, more than five times runner-up Lakewood Ranch. The win marked the seventh straight title for the Bulls.
The top talent in Southwest Florida headed to Charlotte High School for the 3A District 11 Championship. Cory Mull was on-site and has a recap of all the action!
Watch Miami Northwestern, Winter Park, and Estero post the top three times in the country in the girls' 4x800m relay to kick off day three of the Florida Relays.
Darrell Laxton was part of our on-site coverage team of the 2015 Florida Relays and took over 500 photos from day two!
From the state capital of Florida, Tallahassee, the host of the FSU Relays to Austin, Texas the site of the Texas Relays, the Sunshine states' best were at it again! Check out all the highlights in our Sprint To The Finish.
This week produced a slew of great races across the state. With so many to pick from, we chose what we felt were the best of the best.
Watch the Estero girls post a new meet record and US#1 time of 9:24.95 to kick off the 2015 FSU Relays. You can watch all the race videos and interviews as well as check out over 1,000 photos from the day!
A total of ten more teams have been added to the presitigious Race Of Champions at the flrunners.com Invitational. The meet is just ten days away and runners and spectators are eagerly waiting in anticipation. This is the third round of teams to be announce with the newest teams at the bottom of each list. Four more slots will be awarded in the coming days to complete the field. In addition, to this exciting news both days of the meet will be livestreamed, so if you can't make the race or have family or friends that want to watch don't worry.
North Port High School will host one of the largest meets this weekend as teams from across the state and southwest Florida compete in the North Port XC Invitational. The event which had 52 teams entered this year will up the ante with 60 squads toeing the line throughout the course of the morning. The girls elite race will start at 7:30 a.m. followed by the boys, then girls and boys invitational and girls and boys junior varsity races. Flrunners.com will be on-site with coverage including race video, interviews, photos, and a complete recap of all the action. Scout the competition and check out a virtual meet for the elite races that includes the top 25 individuals and top ten teams or click on the complete list to view all the entrants!
Veterans Park in Lehigh Acres played host to the annual Ft. Myers Optimist Invite. Tyler Stowell and Ryan Stafford of The Elite Runner running store pulled double duty also helping out our coverage team this week. Check out Tyler's recap, as well as, Ryan's race videos (coming later) and interviews. Special thanks to Ed Guttery for the awesome images!
The 2014 cross country season is upon us with much excitement and anticipation. The runners in southwest Florida were welcomed to one of the toughest courses in the state of Florida along with hot, humid conditions that is traditional for September. Estero’s coach, Jeff Sommer, prides himself on running a first class meet and making the Estero Community Park “one of hell of a course.” Runners are greeted with climbing a hill twice and the famous sand pit that they have to navigate twice as well.
Forty-six teams and nearly 900 athletes will make their way to Estero Community Park for the Estero DDD Invitational. The course which has been used for district and regional meets in the past, contains short cut grass with a long hill and a sand pit. Newly added this year is a double bump on the backside of the hill. One coach described this race as, "hell on Earth and the toughest course in the state." A strong contingent from southwest Florida is entered along with one of the top boy's teams in the state Belen Jesuit.
The 2014 Cross Country Finals are 81 days away! Though that may seem like a long time to some, the meet will be here before we know it. Teams spent the summer logging quality miles and attending running camp. This week marks the official start of team practices for many with pre-season meets taking place this weekend and the main events the first week in September. As we continue our rankings, we count down the top ten girls teams regardless of class. Did your team make the list? Find out!
Sarasota appears to have a large lead on Seabreeze with a strong top two of Angelina Grebe and Sage Lyons, but a win for the Sailors would mean knocking off powerhouse Estero. Although they are seeded 11th and Coach Sommer says it's not the best year, I've learned to never count out the Wildcats. There is a reason they have won four consecutive state titles! On the boy's side, Belen Jesuit has won seven of the last eight cross country crowns, but their might be a new sherrif in town. After finishing second behind Belen in 2013, the Timberwolves are hoping they can add their fourth championship since 2003.
Daley Cline has been a part of Estero's last two state championships and will be one of the top returners for the Wildcats as they enter the 2014 cross country season. Cline finished sixth at the 3A Cross Country Finals last year and is coming off a track season where she was fifth in the 1,600m at the state meet. See what the junior has to say about her training, why she loves running, and much more in this XC Spotlight.
Another year, another state championship, and another group of student-athletes headed to the next level for Estero High School Coach Jeff Sommer. Three of Summer's runners Araceli Leon, Katie Slater, and Bethany Jenkins, have pledged to FSU, and USF respectively.
At the beginning of the month we took a look ahead at the top individuals returning for the 2014 cross country season. Now we take a look at the top teams. With the year coming to an end and another successful cross country season in the books it is never too early to take a look at the competition for next year! The rankings show a new wave of teams coming through. The Belen boys and Estero girls have ruled the roost for a long time and usually end up reloading rather than rebuilding. Coach Sommer let me hear about it for counting the girls out last year and I am not ready to make that mistake again. We will have to wait and see what happens!
Several of Florida's top individuals and teams headed to Cary, North Carolina the site of the Nike Southeast Regional. Thanks to a little help from his friends Nick Diaz who finished 9th individually, was the fifth highest finisher on a non qualifying team. The result earned him a plane ticket to Portland, Oregon for Nike Nationals next weekend. On the girls side, Estero was the highest team finisher from Florida with a fifth place finish, while Pine Crest looked good with it's two youngsters Yared and Montgomery. The Winter Park boys competed in the open division and came away with a runner-up finish.
In this series we take a look at state championship and runner-up coaches, their outlook on the team, the season, and 2014. Coach Jeff Sommer has been at Estero since it has opened and has been coaching girls for cross country the last ten years. This year the Wildcats picked up their fourth consecutive state championship cementing themselves as one of the most dominant programs in the state.
Several of Florida's top teams and individuals will head to North Carolina and the Wake-Med Sports Complex, site of the NXN Southeast Regional. The top two teams and five individuals (not on qualifying teams) will punch their ticket to Nike Nationals in Portland. Oregon.
Pre-meet team rankings and preview for the 2013 Nike Cross Southeast Regionals by Brandon Miles of MileStat.com, a MileSplit US affiliate. A list of the top 10 ranked teams going into this meet which are competing at WakeMed Soccer Complex in Cary, North Carolina. Rankings took in consideration several factors to determine order including state meet performances, head-to-head matchups, speed ratings, history of team's post-season performances in past years, and projecting a team score based on their team's runners and displacers from others.
What team is the best regardless of classification? We crunched the numbers to find out. First we take a look at the traditional team rankings which are based on season's bests. Next we will look at the composite rankings which calculates numerous factors team average and 1-5 spread. Lastly, we put the top six teams in each class into a virtual meet to see how that would play out. Estero took the top spot in both the Traditional Rankings and Virtual Meet, but finished second behind Bolles in the Composite Rankings.
Coach Rick Rothman of Spanish River sent me a list of the winningest cross country coaches in the state's history. After both the Holy Trinity boys and girls won their seventh state titles each, Coach Doug Butler remains at the top of the list with 14 total championships in his coaching career. Take a look at who moved up the list after picking up state titles in 2013!
The individual and team battles in 3A are going to be epic. Sukhi Khosla ran a course record at Pre-State going 14:59. Can he duplicate that success and pick up his first individual honor. With so much talent on the girls side, who will win their first title? Will Belen and Estero, two powerhouse programs, remain at the top of the team standings? We break down the individual and team battles plus crunch the numbers using our rankings and virtual meets!
We are less than two weeks away from the state meet in Tallahassee. Regional competition starts Thursday with Class 2A Region 4 and will continue through Saturday morning. Over the course of the week we will take a look at the road to state for each class. Sit, back, relax, and enjoy our meet previews and virtual meet exclusively for MileSplit Insiders. If you don't have a subscription now is the time to get one!
The Estero girls look to be a lock in 3A. They have won every meet this year including victories at the flrunners.com Invitational Race of Champions and at Pre-State, and have won three consecutive state titles. On the boys side, it appeared Belen Jesuit was the clear favorite much like every year. The Wolverines have won six of the last seven state championships, but proved they are vulnerable after Chiles defeated them at Pre-State. Coach Gowan's squad is predicted as a ONE POINT favorite. Want to talk about slim margins? Everyone has to be on their "A" game.
Estero Community Park hosted the 2013 Lee County Athletic Conference Championships. It was a hot and humid afternoon for runners on a very tough course, that will also be the site of the district and regional championships. Fort Myers swept the individual honors with Emily Edwards and Tyler Bennett while host Estero took both the boys and girls team trophies. JJ Delago was on-site snapping photos of all the action! Special thanks to Emily, Tyler, and Coach Sommer for help with the meet recap.
It comes down to this….Four weeks from the state meet on this same course, the top ranked individuals and teams on the boys side and all but one of the top ranked girls, Karen Xiang, and the top ranked teams on the girl’s side gather for their last top level race before they are propelled into the state series. Throw in some talented teams from Alabama, Tennessee, Georgia and South Carolina, some expected temperatures in the low 60’s and we have the makings of a very special set of races.
Estero senior Araceli Leon and Pensacola Booker T. Washington senior Mark Robertson are this week's Athletes of the Week. Leon scored her third victory of the year at the Land O'Lakes Gator Invitational and guided Estero to yet another team trophy. Robertson showed why he is one of the top runners in north Florida, besting a competitive field at the Panhandle Championships with a time of 15:40.90, and his third win of the year as well.
Belen Jesuit has won three state titles in a row and six out of the last seven. According to our team rankings they look to be a lock for yet another trophy. Can you say dynasty? On the girls side, Estero is forming one of their own with three state titles in the last three years, the last two coming in 3A. Coach Sommer's group is predicted to place four girls in the top ten and collect championship number four.
The story line coming in was the Estero Wildcat girls sending shockwaves through the cross-country community. After dominant performances at the Flrunners.com Invitational in Titusville a week ago and at the North Port Invitational a week before that, the Estero girls were not just favored to win, they were favored to sweep the top four spots or at least take four of the top five spots.
Who are the top teams and individuals looking to bring home the flrunners.com 14 Invitational Race of Champions trophies? Let's see what the numbers tell us for this season!
Coach Jim Simpson and his crew treated 50+ teams to another exceptional event at the 2013 North Port XC Invitational this Saturday. The field, which was split into Large and Small School Divisions, featured some of the state’s premier squads. From the moment Alina Hotchkiss broke into her powerful rendition of the National Anthem, there was no doubt it was going to be a great day of racing!
This week’s “big meet” will be on The Mark Bostick Golf Course on the University of Florida campus which is known to be challenging given the softer grass and multiple hills which are spread throughout. 72 teams are entered on the girl’s side and 69 on the boys teams will gather on a predicted steamy 90+% humidity and 75+ degree morning. Conditions have been dry this week, so the course surface may be more firm for better footing and performances across the board. Flrunners will be on-site with results, race video, video interviews, thousands of photos, and a complete recap of all the action.
It was a hot humid morning at Veterans Park in Lehigh Acres for the Fort Myers Optimist Invitational. A new and improved course saw athletes starting on soccer fields, running on baseball fields, up and down hills, and ultimately through the finish. When the tough course was completed Estero's Araceli Leon and Fort Myer's Tyler Bennett came out victorious. Al "JJ" Delgalo was on-site with over 1000 awesome photos to recap all the action.
The weather was hot and humid and the course for the Estero DDD Invitational wasn't exactly a walk in the park. In the end, Fort Myers senior Emily Edwards and Belen Jesuit senior Fabian Tomas came away with individual honors, while host Estero and Tomas' Belen Jesuit squad were team champions. Al Delago and Coach Alonso of Carrollwood were on-site to provided us with some awesome coverage. Special thanks to Coach Jeff Sommer of Estero as well for a race recap.
After a three year run as cross country champions, the question in 2013 is can Estero hoist the trophy once again? The Wildcats lose two seniors who have been an integral part of the program in Kacy Smith (Ole Miss) and Katy G. Solis (Jacksonville University). Smith and Solis finished second and third respectively in 2012.
When Katy G. Solis arrived at Estero High School in 2009, Wildcats cross country coach Jeff Sommer knew the freshman from Bonita Springs was a determined runner, but figured that was about it. (via Naples Daily News)
After his boys won the state championship in 2012, Coach Doug Butler picked up his twelfth team title as a coach, making him the winningest coach in state history. Last year, Butler passed legends Roy Harrison, Gary Droze, and Brent Haley with number eleven.
Today I have Erick Montoya with us, Erick was one of the top runners in the nation a few years back. Erick placed 5th at Nike outdoor nationals in the 1600 Meter with a time of 4:18.14, he was also an 8-time runner up in track and xc. Upon graduation Erick took his skills to Gainesville, Fl. where he competed with the Gators for one year. Now Erick is doing even bigger things, read and find out what this heroic young man is up to and accomplishing! (via Danny Duncan's Personal Blog)
Flrunners is reaching out to interview and recognize all of the head coaches from the victorious cross country state championship teams to give them the opportunity to reflect and share their feelings and thoughts on their team's successful fall seasons culminating with state team titles. Coach Sommer has helped Estero become of the best girls teams in the state year in and year out. The Wildcats recently won their third state title in three years.
Gently swaying ancient oak trees towered above runners at the FHSAA state cross country finals on Saturday morning. (via Naples Daily News)
Estero looks to repeat as 3A state champions and win their third team title in three years. Can number one runner Kacy Smith pick up her second individual state title in the process? The senior will be tested by Ft. Myers junior Emily Edwards and Wiregrass Ranch senior Nikita Shah who is headed to Harvard. This one could come down to a sprint to the finish.
Take a beautiful, cool SW Florida morning and mix in a flat, short grass field, a nine meter tall man-made hill, a soccer field, a sugar sand / gravel jeep trail, some woods, a three net sand volleyball pit, three 180º switchbacks and run it twice, hard, and you have the 3A Region 3 meet at Estero Community Park.
When Ole Miss coaches watched a video of Estero High School senior Kacy Smith winning a cross country race earlier this year, apparently another Wildcat runner caught their attention, too. (via Naples Daily News)
Colonial senior Andres Arroyo and Estero senior Kacy Smith are this week's Warrior of the Week winners. Arroyo won the Boys Varsity Gold Race at the FSU Invitational/Pre-State meet beating one of the toughest fields of the year in a new course record time of 15:19.8. Smith was equally impressiv showing guts in the final stage of the Girls Varsity Gold Race at Pre-State to get the victory in 18:06.
In a flrunners.com exclusive story Kacy Smith tells Olivia Ortiz and the rest of the running community where she will spend the next four years of her running career. Smith recently won the FSU Invitational/Pre-State elite race on Saturday afternoon before heading off on her college visit. Congratulations to Kacy on a great weekend all around.
During the long bus ride to Titusville, the Estero girls cross country team kept their focus on winning their second consecutive title at the FLrunners.com Invitational Race of Champions. (via Naples Daily News)
Mix one of the states oldest continuously held CC meets, an outstanding venue with a tough as nails course and 32 raring to go teams and you get the 34th Optimist Invitational hosted by Fort Myers HS.
With tears in their eyes and sobs filling the middle of the field in which they gathered at the end of last season, members of the Estero High School cross country team lamented what they perceived to be a blown chance to win a second consecutive state championship. (via The News-Press)
In 2011, Estero made the jump from 2A to 3A. The change didn't effect the girls team, but the boys delved into some unfamiliar territory. Jose Cartegenas and Alex Hernandez were members of the 2009 team that finished second in the state and were joined by Steven Briner, and Adam Sommer on the 2010 state championship squad. Coach Jeff Sommer returns five of his top seven from last year's third place team led by Jose Cartagenas.
Estero girl's cross country team placed 24th in 2008 before a resurgence of talent came sweeping through the halls. Led by freshman Kacy Smith, Katy G. Solis, and Maria Frank, the Wildcats finished third in 2009. In 2010, Estero placed their top five in the runners in the top twenty, including individual champion Kacy Smith, and beat runner-up Bolles by 83 points. Their team average was an outstanding 18:47. For an encore in 2011, the team upset three-time 3A champions Chiles to win their second consecutive team championship. Is a three-peat in 2012 in the cards?
Hello, I’m Kacy Smith from Estero High School! This is my 4th year running for Coach Sommer and it has been quite an adventure so far. I can’t wait to see what my final year has in store for me and the team, along with every other runner here in Florida. As the Cross Country season comes to a start I have been asked to share my experiences from races, practices, and my team. I’d like to thank the people at Flrunners for giving me this opportunity.
After winning championships at last weekend's state meet, four coaches ascended higher on the all-time winning most coaches list maintained by former FACA XC Chair and Spanish River coach Rick Rothman.
Vanessa Valentine led out the charge, but Olivia Ortiz takes it home.
Carlos Miranda and Olviia Ortiz take home individual honors while the Fort Myers boys and Estero girls are victorious in the team standings.
A region-by-region preview of what to look for at the regional championship this weekend and who we're likely to see at the state meet.
The Lee County Athletic Conference, held for the first time ever at Dunbar HS went great last night. The weather was hot to say the least which would indicate slow times to come right? Incorrect the times were as blazing as it was hot out. To no one’s surprise the girls race was all Kacy Smith from start to finish.
Three Florida teams made the NHSCA Top 50 Rankings, released in conjuction with XCNation.com. On the guys side, Belen Jesuit continues to move up the ladder from tenth to sixth with the site calling them perhaps one of the best teams in Florida history! Columbus drops two notches to numbe 50. On the girls side Estero also maintains a strong position at number twenty-two, two spots higher than they were in the last edition.
Carlos Miranda's training has paid dividends the last two meets. The Palmetto Ridge junior ran sub 16 minutes for the first time this year when he placed third at the flrunners.com Invitational and then followed it up with a new personal best 15:17.71 at the Pre-State Invitational. Kacy Smith showed she is back as a contender. The Estero junior finished third at the Pre-State Invitational in a season best 17:47.21.
The Wildcats are preparing for the upcoming season by doing more than just running. (via Naples Daily News)
Estero's Aaron Rojas is gearing up for his senior season and hoping to lead his squad to back-to-back state championships. The Wildcats move up to 3A for the 2011 season with the likes of Belen Jesuit, Tallahassee Lincoln, and Fort Walton Beach. See how Rojas and his teammates have been preparing, his goals for the season, and which former Estero runner inspires him in this Cross Country Q&A.
We see Estero and Lakewood Ranch TIED through five runners, with Estero coming out on top on #6. There are a lot of VERY strong looking teams coming back this year.
Some people learn to embrace change while others shy away from it. Estero junior Kacy Smith knows the leap from 2A to 3A won't be easy, but it doesn't bother her one bit. Last year Smith won individual gold and led her team to a state cross country championship as well.
Belen Jesuit pack a punch this season! Four of their top five return with plenty of firepower to fill in the gap and then some. Elliot Clemente will lead the way (likely for the entire state) with his 15:03 season best from last year, pacing Belen to a 15:58 team average. Colonial and Estero ring in at a somewhat distant but certainly not insurmountable #2 and #3 position in our computer rankings.
During his last 21 years at Estero High School, Coach Sommer's runners at Estero High have lived by 3 simple principles: DISCIPLINE, DESIRE, DEDICATION. The 3 D's, as they're known.The Wildcats live by those principles day in and day out because by the time most of us are probably entering our first REM cycle, Coach Sommer's runners have once again tested the meaning of his 3 D's. You see, Coach Somer is a morning Coach and his practices start at 5 am. Subtract out any of the 3 D's and you won't be long for his program. Non-morning types, need not apply.